Types Of Adoptions

Adoption services vary by state and by agency, but generally there are three types:

Open Adoption

  • The expectant parent(s) choose the adoptive parents through profiles.
  • Once the selection is made, identifying information is provided to all parties.
  • Meetings, hospital visits, participation in the delivery, post placement and post finalization contact is determined and scheduled by mutual agreement between the expectant parent(s) and adoptive parents(s).
  • Agency staff provide support and medication as needed.
  • State laws differ in the enforcement of post placement, post finalization agreements.

Advantages:

  • All participants involved communicate directly.
  • Establishment of a relationship between the expectant parents and the adoptive parents.
  • On-going sharing of information and child development.
  • The child receives love form expectant parents and adoptive parents and the extended families.

Disadvantages:

  • Conflicts may arise over parenting issues.
  • Parties may regret the long term contact and relationship.
  • Concerns may develop around the child’s contact with their expectant parent.

Semi-open Adoption 

  • The expectant parent(s) select the adoptive parents from non-identifying profiles.
  • The agency mediates contact between the expectant parent and adoptive parents both before and after birth and placement.
  • Non-identifying background and medical information is shared with the adoptive parents and non-identifying background information is shared with the expectant parents.
  • The expectant parents and adoptive parents share first names only, no contact information.
  • The agreed upon exchange of photos, letters, videos, gifts etc. is conducted through the agency by all parties.
  • State laws vary regarding the enforcement of post placement agreements.

Advantages:

  • On-going exchange of information between expectant parents and adoptive parents.
  • Access to expectant parents for additional medical, educational and psychological background information.
  • Affirmation of the adoption choice by the expectant parent.
  • Development of a relationship between the expectant parent(s) and adoptive parents(s).
  • Adopted child’s curiosity can be addressed through the on-going relationship and exchange of information.
  • Future contact between the adopted person and expectant parents can be facilitated.

Disadvantages:

  • Communication is not direct, rather, through the agency.

Confidential Adoption

  • There is no contact between the expectant parent and adoptive parents.
  • The expectant parent does not review profiles or select the adoptive parents.
  • The agency selects the adoptive parents.
  • There is no exchange of letters or pictures or post placement contact of any kind.
  • Non-identifying background and medical information is provided to the adoptive parents.
  • Future contact between the adopted person and the expectant parent will be determined by the laws of the state that has governance in the adoption.

Advantages:

  • Total confidentially for expectant parents

Disadvantages:

  • No access to medical/educational/psychological information that may be needed as the child develops.
  • As the child grows and asks questions regarding the adoption, expectant parents, siblings, there is no access to the expectant parents to receive this information.
  • The secrecy involved might cause a child to feel unwanted and/or abandoned.